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Table 1 Operational Definitions

From: Prevalence and factors associated with severe anaemia amongst under-five children hospitalized at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

Term Definition
Anaemia Was defined by using WHO classification of anaemia as haemoglobin level of less than 11 g/dl [32].
Mild anaemia Was defined by haemoglobin level of 10 to 10.9 g/dl.
Moderate anaemia Was defined by haemoglobin level of 7 to 9.9 g/dl.
Severe anaemia Was defined by haemoglobin level of less than 7 g/dl.
Iron deficiency Was defined as serum ferritin concentration <12 μg/l.
Iron deficiency anaemia Was defined as concurrent anaemia and iron deficiency.
Serum ferritin and iron deficiency Was corrected for infection using C-reactive protein therefore Serum ferritin level was considered low when C-reactive protein was negative and serum ferritin level of <12 μg/ml or when C-reactive protein was positive and serum ferritin level of <30 μg/ml [33].
Z-score(SD-score) Was equal to (observed value – median value of reference population)/standard deviation value of reference population
Mild malnutrition Defined as per WHO guidelines was considered when weight for height/length is between median and -1SD.
Moderate malnutrition Defined as per WHO guidelines was considered when weight for height/length is between -2SD and -3SD (between 70–80 %) with no oedema
Severe malnutrition Was defined as the presence of oedema of both feet, or severe wasting or both (weight for height/length < 70 % or ≤ −3SD).
Morphological type of anaemia Was defined as the erythrocyte shape, size and haemoglobinisation as seen on light microscopic examination of the blood film
Normochromic Was a descriptive term applied to a red blood cell with a normal amount of colour within the red blood cell.
Hypochromic Was a descriptive term applied to a red blood cell with a decreased concentration of haemoglobin where the cells have an expanded central zone of pallor greater than one-third of the diameter of the cell.
Peasant A traditional class of farmers who owns small farms, in other words a none employee or business person